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老年建筑中各类型扶手设计要点

来源:http://www.jnndjc.com 日期:2023-10-06 发布人:admin
由于不同场景下老年人的使用需求不同,所适合的扶手类型也会有所差异。
Due to the different usage needs of elderly people in different scenarios, the suitable types of handrails may also vary.
老年建筑中常见的扶手类型共可以分为3个大类,根据适用场景及功能不同又可以分为20+小类。
The common types of handrails in elderly buildings can be divided into three major categories, and can be further divided into 20+sub categories based on different applicable scenarios and functions.

one
行进辅助类扶手
Travel assistance handrail
行进辅助类扶手主要分为水平行进扶手及提升行进扶手:
Travel assistance handrails are mainly divided into horizontal travel handrails and lifting travel handrails:
水平行进扶手可以在老年人水平行走的过程中维持其身体稳定,可以方便老年人行进中短暂休憩,也可以在老年人出现紧急情况时(例如眩晕、腿脚乏力等)供其紧急抓握避免造成严重伤害;在部分养老设施中,笔者还观察到有些老年人会借助水平扶手进行短距离的步行、蹲下起立等康复训练。
The horizontal walking armrest can maintain the stability of the elderly's body during horizontal walking, facilitate a brief rest during movement, and also provide emergency grip for the elderly in case of emergency situations (such as dizziness, leg weakness, etc.) to avoid serious injury; In some elderly care facilities, the author also observed that some elderly people use horizontal handrails for short distance walking, squatting and standing rehabilitation training.
提升行进扶手主要是帮助老年人在行走中身体发生变化时保持平衡。老年人活动能力下降,在身体发生变化时,比较容易发生意外,所以坡道和楼梯是容易发生事故的位置,因此在这些位置设置扶手就非常有必要,且在扶手起点及终点处宜适当延长,以便老年人能在身体变化之处持续抓握扶手。
Raising the walking armrest is mainly to help elderly people maintain balance when their body center of gravity changes during walking. Elderly people's activity ability decreases, and accidents are more likely to occur when their body's center of gravity changes. Therefore, ramps and stairs are prone to accidents. Therefore, it is necessary to focus on setting handrails at these positions, and extend them appropriately at the starting and ending points of the handrails, so that elderly people can continue to grasp the handrails at the changes in their body's center of gravity.
1. 公共走廊、候梯厅
1. Public corridors and waiting halls
一般情况下,我们希望在走廊两侧[注1]及电梯厅周边都设置连续的行进扶手,用于撑扶和抓握;当连续扶手遇到管井、设备间、消火栓等问题不得不断开时, 需要评估服务对象老人行动的风险,采取对应的措施。常见的措施包括安装可断开的扶手,增加落地扶手以绕行,在房间门上加装扶手等。从我国老年人平均身高考虑,扶手安装高度宜为800~850mm[注2]。
In general, we hope to set up continuous walking handrails on both sides of the corridor [Note 1] and around the elevator hall for support and grasping; When continuous handrails encounter problems such as pipe wells, equipment rooms, and fire hydrants that have to be disconnected, it is necessary to assess the risk of elderly actions by the service object and take corresponding measures. Common measures include installing detachable handrails, adding floor mounted handrails to bypass, and installing handrails on room doors. Considering the average height of elderly people in China, the installation height of handrails should be 800-850mm [Note 2].
*注1:改建项目走廊较窄,可优先保证走廊的必要通行宽度,仅在单侧安装扶手,实在装不上扶手时,也要保证墙面平整、耐污、方便撑扶。
*Note 1: As the corridor of the renovation project is relatively narrow, priority can be given to ensuring the necessary passage width of the corridor. Handrails should only be installed on one side, and when it is not possible to install handrails, it is also necessary to ensure that the wall is flat, stain resistant, and easy to support.
*注2:我国南北方地区老年人的身高差异较为明显,扶手设置高度可参考当地老年人的平均身高,适当进行调整。后文中尺寸参考均与本项相同。
*Note 2: There is a significant difference in the height of elderly people in the southern and northern regions of China. The height of handrails can be adjusted according to the average height of local elderly people. The size references in the following text are the same as this item.
2. 楼梯、台阶和坡道
2. Stairs, Steps, and Ramps
楼梯、台阶和坡道的左右两侧均应安装扶手,且在起点及终点处宜适当延长,以便老年人能在高差变化之处持续抓握扶手,保证身体稳定后手再移开。扶手水平延伸段安装高度距地800~850mm,延伸超出台阶边缘距离不小于300mm。
济南防护扶手
Handrails should be installed on both sides of stairs, steps, and ramps, and should be appropriately extended at the starting and ending points, so that elderly people can continue to grasp the handrails at changes in height, ensuring a stable center of gravity before moving their hands away. The installation height of the horizontal extension section of the handrail is 800-850mm above the ground, and the distance beyond the edge of the step is not less than 300mm.
室外台阶长度超过3000mm时,为方便老人可以不用一直走到台阶侧边去抓握扶手,中间应补充设置扶手。补充的扶手可不位于台阶正中,而是靠近台阶一侧设置,两扶手相距1200mm为宜;其宽度可供两人交错通行,也可供一位老人双手同时扶握。
When the length of outdoor steps exceeds 3000mm, for the convenience of the elderly, they may not have to walk all the way to the side of the steps to grasp the handrail, and a handrail should be added in the middle. The supplementary handrails may not be located in the middle of the step, but on the side near the step, with a distance of 1200mm between the two handrails being appropriate; Its width can be used for two people to cross, or for an elderly person to hold both hands at the same time.
室内存在少量台阶的位置也应设置扶手,帮助老人上下。
Handrails should also be set up in areas where there are a few steps indoors to help the elderly get up and down.
坡道临空侧扶手高度可适当增加,可作为栏杆防止使用者跌落。扶手末端宜采用回弯或者封闭处理,避免钩挂老人衣物。
The height of the handrail on the airside of the ramp can be appropriately increased, which can serve as a railing to prevent users from falling. The end of the armrest should be bent back or closed to avoid hooking elderly clothing.
3. 浴室
3. Bathroom
浴室洗浴区地面湿滑,老年人摔倒风险较高,在墙面安装充足的水平扶手有助于老年人在洗浴过程中更加稳定的移动,避免滑倒。
The floor in the bathroom bathing area is wet and slippery, and elderly people have a higher risk of falling. Installing sufficient horizontal handrails on the wall helps elderly people move more stably and avoid slipping during the bathing process.
4. 电梯轿厢
4. Elevator car
轿厢内扶手能帮助老年人乘梯时保持身体稳定,高度宜为750~850mm。
The armrest inside the lift car can help elderly people maintain physical stability while riding the elevator, and the height should be 750-850mm.
二动作辅助类扶手
Two action auxiliary handrail
住宅中的动作辅助类扶手通常设在卫生间、门厅等处,例如坐便器、浴缸旁的墙面上等。动作辅助类扶手可以起到支撑身体和维持平衡的作用,协助老人地完成起坐、下蹲或转身等动作。
The action assistance handrails in residential buildings are usually located in bathrooms, foyers, and other places, such as on the walls next to toilets and bathtubs. Action assistance handrails can support the body's center of gravity and maintain balance, assisting the elderly in safely completing movements such as sitting up, squatting, or turning.
1. 卫生间——如厕区
1. Toilet - Toilet area
坐便器一侧墙面设置竖向或L型扶手。使用者可以通过拉拽或撑扶扶手借力,坐下或起身;护理人员护理老年人如厕时,扶手也能够一定程度上减轻护理人员的负担。扶手水平杆距地高度约为650~700mm,竖向杆顶部高度不小于1400mm,扶手中心线坐便器中心线距离约为350mm。一些扶手设计成水平横板的形式,在提供支撑的同时也能兼作置物台。
Install vertical or L-shaped handrails on one side of the wall of the toilet. Users can sit or get up by pulling or supporting the armrest to borrow force; When nursing staff care for elderly people to use the restroom, handrails can also reduce the burden on nursing staff to some extent. The height of the horizontal bar of the armrest from the ground is about 650-700mm, the height of the top of the vertical bar is not less than 1400mm, and the distance from the centerline of the armrest to the centerline of the toilet is about 350mm. Some handrails are designed in the form of horizontal horizontal plates, which can also serve as storage platforms while providing support.
坐便器临空一侧可设置翻折式扶手。其特点是能够灵活地根据使用需求上下翻折。扶手横杆距地尺寸约为650~700mm,常与L型扶手组合使用。当扶手上翻时,可为轮椅从侧方接近坐便器提供空间,护理人员协助操作也更方便。设置于坐便器前方的翻折式扶手可供老年人在如厕时临时趴伏小憩。
A foldable armrest can be installed on the side of the toilet facing the air. Its characteristic is the ability to flexibly fold up and down according to usage needs. The size of the armrest crossbar from the ground is about 650-700mm, often used in combination with L-shaped handrails. When the armrest is flipped up, it provides space for the wheelchair to approach the toilet from the side, and it is more convenient for nursing staff to assist in operation. The foldable armrest located in front of the toilet can be used by elderly people to temporarily lie down and take a nap while using the toilet.
坐便器对面墙上水平扶手。适用于坐便器前方距墙较近时(约700mm),老人可以通过拉拽前方的扶手,借助上肢力量完成起身动作。扶手高度约为750~800mm。
Horizontal armrest on the wall opposite the toilet. When the front of the toilet is close to the wall (about 700mm), the elderly can pull the armrest in front and use upper limb strength to complete the up movement. The height of the armrest is approximately 750-800mm.
蹲便器墙面斜向扶手及落地U型扶手可供习惯使用蹲便器且身体尚好的老年人使用,其可以通过拉拽或按压借力起身。
The inclined armrest on the wall of the squatting toilet and the U-shaped armrest on the floor can be used by elderly people who are accustomed to using the squatting toilet and are in good health. They can rise by pulling or pressing.
小便器两侧及上方U型扶手可供身体较虚弱的老年人如厕时身体向两侧或前方进行倚靠。水平两侧扶手上沿距地高约为900mm,上方平行于墙面的横向部件距地高度约为1200mm。
The U-shaped handrails on both sides and above the urinal can be used by frail elderly people to lean towards the sides or front when using the restroom. The height of the upper edge of the horizontal handrails from the ground is about 900mm, and the horizontal components parallel to the wall above are about 1200mm from the ground.
2. 卫生间——盥洗区
2. Toilet - Lavatory Area
洗手台前方及两侧扶手的主要功能是帮助坐姿或者乘坐轮椅的老年人通过倚靠或拉拽扶手靠近洗手台和稳定身体;水池前方扶手高度不宜过高,以免影响轮椅老人的伸臂洗手动作,正常高度宜与水池上沿平齐,或略高于台面上沿10mm。
The main function of the handrails in front of and on both sides of the sink is to help elderly people sitting or in wheelchairs approach the sink and stabilize their bodies by leaning or pulling on the handrails; The height of the armrest in front of the pool should not be too high to avoid affecting the hand washing action of wheelchair elderly people. The normal height should be flush with the top edge of the pool or slightly 10mm higher than the top edge of the countertop.
3. 卫生间——淋浴区
3. Toilet - Shower Area
淋浴区设置充足的水平及垂直扶手,可以保证老年人进行穿脱衣、起转身、行走等多种动作时,都能够找到就近的扶手抓握,也能够为照护人员助浴提供一定的便利。
The shower area is equipped with sufficient horizontal and vertical handrails, which can ensure that elderly people can find nearby handrails to grip when performing various movements such as dressing and undressing, starting and turning, and walking. It can also provide certain convenience for caregivers to assist in bathing.
4. 卫生间——盆浴区
4. Bathroom - Bathroom Area
在浴缸边缘墙面配合设置竖向扶手,使老人在跨入及跨出浴缸时能更好地保持身体平衡。
Install vertical handrails on the edge wall of the bathtub to help the elderly maintain better balance when stepping in and out of the bathtub.
浴缸中部可以设置辅助跨入的扶手,使跨入动作更加。
A handrail can be installed in the middle of the bathtub to assist in stepping in, making it safer to step in.
浴缸侧墙扶手可以加设垂直、水平或斜向扶手,主要作用为辅助老人从浴缸内起身、从坐姿转化为站姿。水平扶手高度距离浴缸上表面100~150mm。
The handrail on the side wall of the bathtub can be equipped with vertical, horizontal, or diagonal handrails, mainly to assist the elderly in getting up from the bathtub and transitioning from a sitting position to a standing position. The height of the horizontal armrest is 100-150mm from the upper surface of the bathtub.
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